The main instrument of borrowing is the issuance of Federal securities via an auction or tender procedure.
Members of the Bund Issues Auction Group initially take the offered Federal securities into their own portfolios and then gradually resell them to their customers.
The Federal government also uses the syndicate procedure for the issuance of Federal securities, but comparatively less frequently. When issued via a syndicate, the respective Federal securities are brokered directly to investors on behalf of the Federal government by a selected group of banks for a fee.
The Federal government's planned issuance program is announced as an annual forecast at the end of the previous year for the following calendar year. A detailed issuance calendar with exact auction dates is published in order to provide investors with the greatest possible planning certainty.
The composition of the issuance volume from 2014 to 2019 shows a relatively stable pattern.
Due to the measures taken to deal with the Covid 19 pandemic, the issuance volume was expanded in 2020 and 2021. In 2022, it could be reduced.
A significant expansion of the issuance volume is again planned for 2023 to cover the effects of the ongoing pandemic, the war in Ukraine and the resulting energy crisis.